by Donald A. Jusko
Real Color Wheel for Pigment ArtistsLink to Real Color Wheel Main Page
Chemical Colors, USA Manufacture's color choices on the RCW
Golden, Grumbacher, Liquitex and W/N have color choices that are great, 2006, they all have the correct transparent colors now. Daniel Smith is finally coming around, 10-18-2006, they published their color wheel. It now has the correct primaries, almost, their magenta of choice is PR19 which is too warm and makes a poor blue and they like the theory of separating the optical and mixing colors saying yellow is opposite purple. But they are getting closer, and that's a big step. Liquitex and Grumbacher have always done a great job.
For mixing complement opposition colors into neutral dark.2009 We have all the transparent primaries now for all media.
Original RCW painting,
12-19-95, it had 4 tints to white on 12 colors with 8 values to dark neutral.
Painting #816, acrylic, 15x22 on 1/8 mahogany plywood covered with polyester woven cloth.
Liquitex, the first correct magenta, they called it Acra Violet.
Sennelier is the only supplier I could find with the PR122 dry pigment.
Concentric Numbers of the RCW.
The dots on the colorwheel locate different pigments on 10 different value concentric rings. There are 36 wedges for 36 colors and 10 blocks to dark neutral in each color.
#1.0.9 is the coolest yellow in the yellow arc, a tint of Indian yellow transparent could be #1.00 to #1.09 (two digits for tints, one digit for shades.)
#1.0 is the Pure Yellow wedge with pure color. There are 10 graduated values getting darker below it, there are 36 color wedges in all. Color 36RCW#1, yellow, has five different pigment color values located in it from cool to warmer. 1, 2, 3, 5 and 9. 36RCW#1.0.1
Brown is the darkest intensity of Yellow. Mix this low intensity yellow with it's opposite color Ultramarine blue for a neutral dark.
THIS IS HOW AND WHY THE RCW WORKS.
Element Colors - Crystal and Chemical Colors - Pigment Colors
They all become dark on the same color path.
While painting, darks should be made to match nature by mixing in the opposite complementary color and not by adding black pigments. The same color pigments are used in all media.
This RCW 36 colorwheel has brand pigment names and generic Chemical Class names.
It also includes the pigment chemical names in Chemical Classes
and the Color Index Name and Number. They still use red, yellow and blue as primary colors.
Each brand name pigment is a chosen color made from one or more Chemical Classes in combination.
Each Chemical Class color travels on a graduated path changing color as it moves. The ASTM Pigment Color number itself also has a graduated path of different related colors. Different brands, different names, same color.. or close. You have to find the right brand color, start with the Chemical Class color. Daniel Smith did a good job, so did Grumbacher. No one brand has all the best pigment colors and there is no standard for the names they choose to call them.
Example.. From the element Copper we get Copper Phthalocyanine as a Chemical Class with a path from green PG36 with chlorine and bromine to PG7 with just chlorine to Cyan PB15. PB15 has a path from cyan to a transparent ultramarine/blue blue hue at PB15:6, like the crystal Iceland Spar.
PB15.1 has a magenta cast, PB15.3 is pure cyan without added magenta. Grumbacher uses PB15.3 but just calls it PB15.
Blue-Violet is between Cyan and Magenta and is Ultramarine Blue in hue. Blue-Violet is a photo industrial color term for the blue filter used to make the yellow printing plate. Blue is opposite yellow. Red, Green and Blue are primary colors on the Light color wheel only.. red, green and blue are the more saturated RGB colors.
Red and Blue pigment colors are secondary colors and can be made mixing the primary pigment colors of transparent Yellow and Magenta for red and transparent Cyan and Magenta for Blue. Red pigment is not opposite green pigment, they are both secondary colors capable of being mixed with pigment.
As in the RCW, the same brown to yellow color intensity path of yellow is found in both element crystal compounds, and class chemical compounds. The elements lead and iron have oxides with similar ranges of color from yellow to brown and red to brown in synthetic chemicals and natural oxides, just like their crystal counterparts. Pigment color oppositions should match the natural color of the element's crystal oppositions. Just as the lead element only makes yellow and blue crystals (and cyan found in Mexico). The RCW matches the chemical class colors with their paths to darker color intensities.
The RCW color wheel uses the final color of elements found in crystals, oxides, chemical colors and vegetable colors, it also works with stage lighting which are the results of RGB colors.
Yellow, orange and red darken to brown in crystals, natural oxides, chemical class pigments and vegetable colors.
Yellow to Brown
Elements in Crystal
The Chrysoberle crystal with the element Beryllium is the standard yellow to brown transparent crystal.
The Citroen Quartz crystal is transparent with the element iron, it includes from yellow to orange to brown.
The opaque Chalcopyrite crystal with iron will show colors from, yellow, orange, tan, red and brown.
Yellow to Brown Chemical Class Pigments
Diarylide Yellow makes these colors.
Diarylide Yellow AAA,
Diarylide Orange, PO34
Diarylide Red, PR166, Disazo Scarlet
Diarylide Brown PY12 brown.
Yellow to Brown Chemical Class Pigments
Monoazo-Aceoacety Benzimidazolone makes this path of intensity for yellow colors, just like oxides and crystals.
Benzimidazolone makes these colors from yellow to brown only, like the Chrysoberle crystal and calcimined lead oxides.
Benzimidazolone Yellow H3g, PY154 CI# 11781, yellow to yellow-orange.
Benzimidazolone Yellow PY151. = Naples Yellow Hue
Benzimidazolone Orange, PO62, 11775. D.S = Permanent Orange.
Benzimidazolone Orange H5g, PO62. Schmincke = Chrome Orange
Benzimidazolone Orange H5g, PO62, Lukas W/C = Helio Genuine Orange.
Benzimidazolone Orange HL, PO36, 11780.
Benzimidazolone Red, Deep Scarlet, PR175, 12513.
Benzimidazolone Carmine, Hf3c, PR176, 12515.
Benzimidazolone Brown, Permanent Brown, PBr25, 12510.
Benzimidazolone Maroon, Napthamide Maroon, PR171,12512
Benzimidazolone Bordeaux PV32, 12517
Yellow to Brown Oxide Pigments, Opaque and Translucent.
- Mars chemical compound colors colors are synthetic iron oxides and follow the same color color intensity scale getting darker as iron oxides. Both are matched on the Real Color Wheel.
- Old Holland, iron oxides, Gold Ocher Light orange side, opaque. Brown Ocher Pale red side. Brown Ocher darker yellow side. Red Ocher dark red side opaque. Brown Ocher Deep is close to Iron Oxide Burnt Umber, translucent.
- Talens, Burnt Umber translucent, PR101, Iron Oxide Brown natural.
- Blockx, Iron Oxide, Venetian Red natural opaque PR101
- Blocks, Iron Oxide, Italian Earth natural translucent high silica content.
- Schmincke, Grumbacher and others, Iron Oxide Raw Sienna, PBr7, translucent high silica content.
- Old Holland, Iron oxide natural colors, Gold Ocher PY43, Brown Ocher Pale,
- Lefranc Bourgeous, Vandyke Brown, PBr8 Manganese Brown.
Yellow to Orange path in Chemical Class pigments
-Tereachloroindolinone, which makes Isoindolinone Yellow R, a brown/side Indian Yellow.
Yellow to Green path in Chemical Class pigments
Yellow to Magenta and Yellow to brown Chemical Class pigments.
Cyan darkens to ultramarine blue hue in these transparent crystals and class chemicals... and the sky above us.
Crystal compounds Cyan to Blue in color depth.
-AZURITE crystal, Cu3[CO3]2[0H]2. COPPER, Standard Azure/Cobalt color, #22.1, [MCCC]. Includes cyan, azure (cobalt blue) and ultramarine blue hue, transparent, translucent and opaque, shows blue in mass.
-CALCITE crystals, CaCO3, trigonal crystals, also aggregate and mass, colorless, transparent and translucent.
-CALCITE crystals w/COPPER, "Iceland Spar crystal", Cyan, allochromatic, polarizing filter. In this crystal light cyan turns into dark ultramarine blue, like in the the Real Color Wheel and Aquamarine crystal.
Chemical class compound pigments Cyan to blue.
-PB15 is a primary pigment color, Daniel Smith calls it Manganese Blue Hue instead of Cyan, but it is the same color, marketing. Manganese does make an excellent cyan.
True Transparent Test, the under-tone of any tested pigment will not show lighter on a black paper.
Translucent pigments are semi-transparent or semi-opaque, weak opaque colors. Both strong and weak opaque colors all will lighten a black paper, so they are not transparent.
-Aureolin, PY40, Potassium Cobaltinitrite, is not transparent as has always been claimed, it's a translucent, a weak opaque. Chemicals can make a transparent dark brown pigment, oxides can make translucent and opaque pigments.
Here are the transparent yellow chemical pigments.
Indian Yellow can be made with these Chemical Class colors;
-Dioxine Yellow Nickel Complex which makes Nickel Dioxine Yellow Br/s and Green/s PG10F (I think they stopped making this color).
-Disazo, which makes Dairylide Yellow.
-Anthraquinone, which makes Anthrapyrimidine Yellow PY108 and Flavanthrone PY112.
-Tetrachloroindolinone, which makes Isoindolinone Yellow R, a brown/side Indian Yellow.
Using Transparent Yellow.
Indian Yellow is a set of two colors, transparent yellow-orange to yellow PY153 and transparent yellow-brown to yellow PY150. One is a strong yellow to mix with magenta making orange to crimson rose, including bright red, the other is for lower chroma greens and browns. These transparent dual-toned colors mix a lot of greens and reds.
49 pigment colors Clickable on a Real Color Wheel. Don't miss it! New window
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