aerial perspective: Aerial Perspective denotes colors changing by adding atmosphere.
analogous: Analogous colors are next to each other up to 170º apart on a colorwheel.
arcs: See wedges.
calcined: A calcined pigment is heated to change color, White lead is calcined to yellow, than orange, red, brown and Cuput Mortium. The tin element can be calcined to make a full range of pigment colors also. Egypt's tin colors lost the paint war to Europe's lead colors. Lead turns tin colors brown.
Adding heat to lead white forms yellow litharge pigment early on in the heat process. Maroger's medium uses the the lead color orange called Red Lead. Here is a lead heat transformation; heating red lead rapidly at a high temperature decomposes the red lead and turns it into orange litharge. Cooking this litharge in oil makes it a transparent brown gel called black oil. It's very nice to paint with. It was the most popular medium at the time when lead was the King of Pigments. This oil has a low tinting strength and good body. Orange Litharge is higher in the litharge oxide which is more transparent. Lead lost the Paint Wars and we gained transparent PR:122 Magenta, Yellow PY:153 and Cyan PB:15. The greatest most pure transparent primary colors the world has ever seen..
Lead heated in a fire will cause white lead oxide to form. Acid gas does a better job making more white oxides. Roast the white to make the colors from yellow to orange, red and brown. Lead white carbonate calcines to yellow, orange, red lead tetroxide, Pbsub3 Osub4, called "Minium", red lead oxide is made by heating white lead in the presence of air, it turns dark in fresco as all leads do. This was a mastic, oil and wax paint that is unaffected by alkalis. Phoenician, 1000 B/C, Greek, Roman, 500 B/C.
Artists Pigments, Feller, pg 118. "When heated strongly red lead decomposes to form litharge. When heated gently it turns to reddish brown then purple. That would be cuput mortum."
My Real Color Wheel uses the same color path for darkening White to Yellow to Brown as this lead oxide crystal. The lead colors yellow to orange and red all darken to the same brown that calcines to Burnt Umber. Today we use a burnt brown oxide and the opaque brown lead pigment is gone. Another setback for the element lead in the Paint Wars.
complement: A complement color is an opposite color, complements work very well together as whole colors, mixed 1:1 they make a neutral dark.
deeply saturated: means a transparent to opaque color skipping translucent. I really don't like transparent pigments.
distance rings: Distance rings are concentrically located around you, starting at 10 yards away from you, use them to measure objects a like distance away from you while matching similar aerial perspective color values.
dual-toned: A dual-toned or duo-toned color has one dark mass-tone color and a different top-tone and/or under-tone color. Indian Yellow is one of these colors, changing from an ocher brown to a light yellow. Not many transparent colors have this dual-toned distinction.
intensity: Intensity of a color is how much it is saturated with pure colors, another description is how bright it is, as, yellow is more intense than blue. Green and Magenta are the same intensity.
Indian Yellow Original: NY:20, Originally the color Indian Yellow had replaced all the transparent yellows before it because it was permanent. The "Purée of India" replaced Gamboge a pigment first used in 1500, a transparent yellow resin gum for oil and water color, turmeric, saffron, woad and Orpiment NY:24. Today we use PY:150 a transparent Nickel Azomethine Yellow and PY:153 a transparent Nickel Dioxine Yellow or PY100 Tartrazine for transparent watercolor.
1886_COLOR,THE FIRST AND LAST PUBLIC STANDARD OF PIGMENT COLORS FOR ARTISTS
A. W. Keim, German. "Deutche Gesellschatf zur Forderung rationeller Malverfahren", The German Society for the Promotion of Rational Methods in Painting, 1886.
They set up control for the pigments in colors found best by the artists, to guarantee the color's characteristics and ingredients. These are the colors deemed necessary by the artists in 1886; 1. White Lead, 2. Zinc White, 3. Cadmium Yellow Light, Medium and Orange. Cadmium Red wasn't discovered until 1909, 4. Indian Yellow, 5. Naples Yellow Light and Dark, 6. Yellow to Brown, Natural and Burnt Ochers and Sienna, 7. Red Ocher, 8. Iron Oxide colors, 9. Graphite, 10. Alizarin Crimson Madder Lake (a Magenta colored fugitive pigment) 11. Vermilion, 12. Umbers, 13. Cobalt Blue, Native and Synthetic, 14. Ultramarine Blue, Natural and Synthetic, 15. Paris-Prussian Blue, 16. Oxide of Chromium, Opaque and Transparent Viridian, 17. Green Earth, 18. Ivory Black, 19. Vine Black.
NOTICE THAT DUAL-TONE YELLOW WAS CONSIDERED NECESSARY AS WELL AS THE UNMATCHABLE NAPLES YELLOW OF ANTIMONY LEAD. BOTH OF THESE PIGMENTS WERE ELIMINATED BY CHURCH-OSTWALD FROM THEIR COLOR CHART, FOLLOWING ENGLAND'S POLICY.
Indian Yellow to brown PY153 images.
Making Transparent Indian Yellow as a RCW water color.
Transparent Indian yellow as a CMYK plotter ink.
Transparent Indian Yellow to brown.
Palette Indian yellow transparent information.
Maroger: Maroger medium is Red Lead heated in oil (not boiled) to become a transparent brown oil that is great to paint with as a medium.
mass-tone: Mass-tone is also called mass-color. It means the full chroma color right out of the tube.
mono-tone: Mono-tone is a one color pigment, like cad. yellow.
neutral dark: A dark neutral color is a blend of two colors making a neutral dark that can be tinted to a neutral gray. Black is a singular dark neutral pigment.
opaque: Marble is opaque because you can't see through it, thinned milk is translucent, water is transparent because you can.
opposite colors: Opposite colors are the same as complement colors. They work very well together as whole colors, mixed they make a neutral dark.
Paint War: Paint War: As pigments and media improve, older one's are replaced. I have been keeping tract of these changes by adding "Paint Wars" in the text next to the changes. This is a link to the first battle, the rest can be found by your browser's search for the words, paint war.
Pictura Translucida: Pictura Translucida: Pictura Translucida (picturatranslucida) was then and is now a painting technique using transparent and opaque pigments in tandem on a shinny metal support panel. This produces the most amazing dimensional effect with light. I see why this was called the most beautiful form of painting in the first century.
A/D 500 CONSTANTINOPLE, This is the First Golden Age of Byzantine, a High-Art period in history.
A/D 700 CONSTANTINOPLE, The Lucca Manuscript describes some little known forms of art, one called "Pictura Translucida", which was transparent resin mastic or lacquer medium with transparent pigments painted on polished tin plates. At this time there were artists that were making paintings more beautiful than ever seen today. They had not only a complete opaque palette, but a complete transparent palette as well. By today's standards the colors were not permanent but they had all of them. They could make a halo or face glow by adding intensity to the color through reflectance from the shiny surface support.
pure color: Pure color is the same as full chroma color, it represents the full intensity hue on a color wheel.
primary colors: Three transparent primary colors will make a full color wheel. Yellow PY100, PY150 & PY153 are the main yellow pigment color numbers. Magenta is PR122. A brighter less saturated magenta compound is made with PR122 and RV10, they make the brightest reds and blues but not a saturated deep magenta like PR122. Third is cyan PB15
Real Color Wheel: Real Color Wheel aka RCW, is Trade Marked and Copyrighted by Don Jusko. Originally painted in 1995 to confirm colors while painting on location. Divided into 360 colors, 36 colors and 12 colors. You can use it for free but you can't sell it without my permission.
split complements: A split-complement is a color scheme of three colors. The original, and an opposite/complement color to measure the location of the two colors next to it. This set of split complements can be from one to one-hundred-seventy-eight degrees apart, almost half the color wheel. Past 180º it would be called an analogous color scheme. Use more than one set of split complements of the same opposite color for a very harmonious color scheme.
top-tone: A top-tone color can be made by adding the opaque pigment white to a transparent dual-toned or standard transparent pigment. The dual-toned color will change its original mass color to a tint of a different hue. Different again would be the under-tone color made by adding a clear medium instead of opaque white. A top-tone can also be made by adding white to an opaque color in which case only the intensity will change in the tinted color. Adding clear to an opaque color would make it more translucent.
translucent: Translucent is a colloidal solid, particles of solid so small there continually suspended but not dissolved. Milk is a colloidal, solid fat dispersed in clear water, add more water and it becomes more translucent. It can always be more translucent but never transparent, the beam of light will always show the colloidal particles. Vapor can be a colloidal transparent.
transparent: Transparent is clear like water, it can be a colored transparent clear also like a stain or dye. A Tyndall beam of light will pass through a transparent solution unseen.
under-tone: An under-tone color can be made by adding a clear medium like water or oil to a transparent dual-toned pigment which will change the color itself in a wash. It can also be made by adding clear to non-dual-toned color in which case only the opacity of the color will change.
value: Value of any color can be changed by adding a lighter or darker color to it. Tints are made with opaque white. Distance Aerial Perspective will also change the value of any perceived color.
wedges: There are the 36 wedges or arcs/slices/sections/triangles in the 360º pie chart printed over the continuous light color wheel. It's modified to include the crystals and elements of each color's path as they get darker. 120º triangles for the "3RCW", 30º triangles for the "12RCW", 10º triangles or wedges for the "36RCW" and 1º triangles/wedges for the "360RCW". I've only made the 3RCW, 12RCW and 36RCW so far.